Olivia Kroth: Lessons of Russian History – The last days of the last Tsar (Part V)

Lessons of Russian History:

The last days of the last Tsar (Part V)

by Olivia Kroth

Ipatiev House and the execution of the Romanov family - Abandoned Spaces

After the last Tsar, his family and attendants were shot by Yakov Yurovsky and his Chekist helpers in the House of Ipatiev in Yekaterinburg, in the early morning hours on the 17th of July 1918, the question arises why Yakov Yurovsky was so keen on eliminating the last reigning Romanov family. The answer can be found in his ethnic roots and upbringing.

Yakov Yurovky was of Jewish descent, born as Yankel Khaimovich in the Tomsk Governorate, Siberia. The Russian Jews had suffered from tsarist anti-Semitism and pogroms, for a long time. Probably Yakov Yurovsky, formerly Yankel Khaimovich, did not hate Tsar Nicholas II so much personally, as he hated the institution of tsardom in general and wanted to destroy it completely.

The tsarist pogroms against Jews in the Russian Empire had been planned and carried out by government authorities, supervised by the okhrana, the tsarist secret police. The first large-scale pogrom took place in Odessa, Ukraine, in 1821. Other pogroms followed in Kiev and Odessa, from 1881 to 1884. The trigger for this severe persecution of Jews was the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, in 1880, for which some people blamed the Jews.

Emblem of the Russian Ministry of Interior, responsible for the Tsar’s Okhrana:

More bloody pogroms followed, from 1903 to 1906. About 2.000 Jews were killed and many more were wounded. The pogrom in Kishinev, Bessarabia, today Moldavia, in 1903, was one of the most brutal pogroms in Russian history. Other towns were affected as well: Kerch, Kiev, Odessa, Simferopol and Yekaterinoslav.

These pogroms led many Russian Jews to reassess the perception of their status within the Russian Empire. A significant Jewish emigration followed. Some of the Jews stayed in Russia. Most of those, who did not emigrate, joined the Bolsheviks and later the newly founded Cheka. This was the case for Yankel Khaimovich, aka Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky.

Pogroms against Jews in the Russian Empire:

Pogroms and Russian Jewish Immigrants - Re-imagining Migration

Yankel Khaimovich / Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky was born in Kainsk, Tomsk Governorate, on the 19th of June 1878. He was the eighth of ten children in a large Jewish working-class family. His father Khaim Yitzakovich was a glazier, his mother Esther Moishewna worked as a seamstress.

Yankel’s grandfather Yitzak was a rabbi in Poltava. Thus Yankel grew up in an Orthodox Jewish environment and attended the synagogue school in Tomsk. From 1890, he worked as a watchmaker’s apprentice in Tobolsk and Tomsk. In 1904, he married Mane Yankelevoi Kaganer in the local synagogue. He also worked in Feodosia and Yekaterinodar, Crimea, and in Batum, Georgia.All of these places belonged to the Russian Empire.

In 1905, Yankel Chaimovich joined revolutionary circles in Tomsk. First, he took part in combat units of the Russian General Jewish Labour Bund, generally called «Bund». Later, he became a Bolshevik, following the example of his close friend Yakov Sverdlov, and was engaged in the dissemination of Marxist literature. Returning to Yekaterinodar in 1907, he opened his own watch shop in this city.

Yakov Mikhail Yurovksy with one of his sons:

Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky with one of his sons. "AL" | Imperial russia,  Romanov family, Romanov dynasty

The Bund was a secular Jewish labour party, initially formed in the Russian Empire, between 1897 and 1920. It advocated far-reaching democracy, national-cultural autonomy for Eastern European Jewry and the creation of a secular education system. It supported the development of culture in the Yiddish language. The Bundists believed that Jews should not be assimilated.

The Bund was an anti-Zionist party and opposed Jewish emigration to Palestine, while actively campaigning against anti-Semitism, as well as defending Jewish civil and cultural rights. The majority faction of the Russian Bund was dissolved, in 1921, and incorporated into the Communist Party. The anthem of the Bund, known as «the oath» («di shvuer» in Yiddish), was written in 1902 by S. Ansky:

«Brothers and sisters in toil and struggle / All who are dispersed far and wide / Come together, the flag is ready / It waves in anger, it is red with blood! / Swear an oath of life and death! / Heaven and earth will hear us, / The light stars will bear witness. / An oath of blood, an oath of tears, / We swear, we swear, we swear! / We swear an endless loyalty to the Bund. / Only it can free the slaves now. / The red flag is high and wide. / It waves in anger, it is red with blood! / Swear an oath of life and death!»

Anthem of the Bund, «Shvuer»:

Election poster of the General Jewish Labour Bund hung in Kiev, 1917. Heading: «Where we live, there is our country!» Inside frame: «Vote List 9, Bund». Bottom: «A democratic republic! Full national and political rights for Jews!»:

From 1912, Yakov Yurovsky lived in Yekaterinburg, in the Urals, where he started a workshop for watch repair and photography. His workshop was at the same time a turnout for the Bolsheviks and a laboratory for the production of passports for them. In 1916, he was called to serve as a paramedic at a local hospital. Here Yakov Yurovsky became an active agitator among the wounded soldiers.

After the February Revolution, he sold his photo workshop and with the proceeds he organized the Bolshevik printing house «Ural Worker». He also became a member of the Council of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, a prominent Bolshevik and one of the main leaders of the revolution in the Ural mountains, cooperating with Yakov Aaron Sverdlov.

In April 1917, Yakov Aaron Sverdlov arrived in Yekarinburg from the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks  and began to organize delegates for the All-Russian Conference, which took place on April 24. While Vladimir Lenin announced his plan for the Oktober Revolution, Yakov Aaron Sverdlov attracted personnel, preparing an alternative coup in the Urals, in case there was a failure in Saint Petersburg.

Yakov Aaron Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 1885 – 1919):

 Yakov Aaron Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 1885 – 1919) was a Bolshevik Party administrator, from 1917 to 1919. Born in Nizhny Novgorod to a Jewish family active in revolutionary politics, he supported Vladimir Lenin.

Yakov Aaron Sverdlov was elected chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, in November 1917. He worked to consolidate the new Bolshevik Government and played a major role in authorising the execution of the Romanov family, in July 1918. He died, in March 1919, during the Spanish flu at the age of 33 and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow. The city of Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk in his honour, in 1924.

The house in Nizyny Novgorod, where Yakov Aaron Sverdlov was born:

Yakov Yurovsky went down in history as the leader of the execution of Nicholas II and his family. On the 4th of July 1918, he became the commandant of the Ipatiev House. By decision of the Ural Council, he led the execution in the night of July 16-17. Yakov Yurovsky said that he personally shot Nicholas Romanov with his Mauser. Other participants – Pyotr Yermakov, Medvedev and some Magyars – shot the rest. In total, they killed 12 people, including the servants and the family doctor. 

The destruction of the corpses was entrusted to Pyotr Yermakov, Yakov Yurovsky also participated. They threw the bodies of the dead into an abandoned mine of the Urals. A day later, they returned to this mine and began to burn them with acid and fire, trying to destroy any possibility of leaving relics. The Romanovs’ valuables were sealed and sent to Moscow by train.

Yakov Yurovsky later moved to Moscow, where he became a member of the board of the Moscow Cheka, as well as head of the district Cheka. From 1928, he worked as director of the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow. He died from a perforated duodenal ulcer, in 1938.

Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky (Яков Михайлович Юровский; 1878 – 1938):

One of the main helpers to kill the last Tsar’s family was Pyotr Zakharovich Yermakov (Пётр Захарович Ермаков; 1884 – 1952). He first worked as a metal craftsman in the Yekaterinburg region. In 1917, he aligned himself with the Bolshevik faction. In the summer of 1917, Pyotr Yermakov took part in the formation of the Red Guard detachments in the Yekaterinburg region. He commanded the 3rd Ural squad, formed by volunteer workers from the 4th District of the Red Army Reserve.

During the encirclement near the city of Troitsk, he received a bullet wound in the stomach. Until the end of April 1918, he was treated in a hospital in the city of Troitsk, afterwards he was transferred to one of the Yekaterinburg hospitals. In May 1918, Pyotr Yermakov was appointed military commissar of the 4th district of the Red Army Reserve in Yekaterinburg. In July 1918, he became a direct participant in the execution of Nicholas II and his family.

Pyotr Zakharovich Yermakov (Пётр Захарович Ермаков; 1884 – 1952):

At the end of July 1918, he retreated from Yekaterinburg along with units of the Red Army towards Perm. In August 1918, he defended the main line of the railway near Kungur, together with his detachment. At the end of 1918, Pyotr Yermakov’s detachment entered the 30th brigade of the 3rd Army.

In 1919, Pyotr Yermakov was enlisted as commissar of the guard battalion of the 3rd Army. In March 1920, the Revolutionary Military Council sent him to the Western Front. In April 1920, he was enlisted as a military commissar of the 23rd brigade of the 8th division and participated in the battles on the Berezina.

Pyotr Zakharovich Yermakov (Пётр Захарович Ермаков; 1884 – 1952):

After being wounded, he was enrolled as a commissar of the reserve regiment of the 16th Army, where he stayed until July 1921, then he was appointed military commissar of the 48th brigade of the 16th Army. In 1921-1922, he organized the work of cavalry courses as a commissar. In 1923, he got demobilized from the ranks of the Red Army due to illness.

In April 1923, Pyotr Yermakov was appointed head of the Omsk city police , where he led the liquidation of groups of criminal banditry. Since April 1924, he worked in Yekaterinburg as deputy head of the mining and industrial police. From December 1924 to May 1925, he served as head of the administrative department of the Chelyabinsk police department. Since May 1925, he held a similar position in Zlatoust, and from May 1926 to September 1927, in the city of Usolye of the Upper Kama District.

After administrative work in various poisitions, Pyotr Yermakov retired, at the end of 1934. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), he served as chairman of the military section of the Molotov district council of Sverdlovsk, which allowed him to check military training and instruction in all organizations of the Molotov region. He died from cancer in Sverdlovsk, on the 22nd of May 1952, and was buried at the Ivanovo cemetery. In Soviet times, one of the streets of Sverdlovsk was named after Pyotr Yermakov.

Pyotr Zakharovich Yermakov (Пётр Захарович Ермаков; 1884 – 1952):

Regarding the Romanovs’ fate, the majority of the population was relieved, when 300 years of Romanov rule finally ended. The people were waking up from a dreadful nightmare, which had lasted too long. The Romanov clique had misappropriated natural resources for their personal gains, exploited the human working force, accumulated immense wealth on the backs of the people, shown no respect for other religions except Russian orthodoxy.

In many ways, the years 1917 and 1918 represent a landmark in history. The October Revolution of 1917, the end of the Romanov dynasty, the outcome of World War I brought major changes not only for Russia but for the entire world.

These events and their consequences are so fundamental that they merit further critical studies in the future, regarding their economic, geopolitical, military, philosophical, psychological, religious and social implications and consequences. They will surely keep the human mind busy for a long time.

Olivia Kroth: The journalist and author of four books lives in Russia. Her blog:

https://olivia2010kroth.wordpress.com

This article was also published in THE DURAN:

Leonid Utyosov, «My Odessa»:

Mikhail Shufutinsky, «My Odessa smells like the sea»:

Acerca de olivia2010kroth

Writer, journalist: The Duran https://olivia2010kroth.wordpress.com
Esta entrada fue publicada en Uncategorized. Guarda el enlace permanente.

60 respuestas a Olivia Kroth: Lessons of Russian History – The last days of the last Tsar (Part V)

  1. Спокойной ночи! Buenas noches!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  2. almerighi dijo:

    Very very very interesting!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  3. Благодарю! – Thank you!

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  4. Yogesh D dijo:

    There are many such examples in history who fought for the pride of their country. Sometimes there were wars for mutual supremacy also, but wherever war has happened, in past or present, there has been loss of life, innocent lives have been lost, soldiers dedicated to the country have lost their lives. Those whose lives are lost in war, the pain of their family remains for life, and the progress of that country also lags behind by a few years. Very nice post ma’am👌👌🙏🌻

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  5. Thank you for your interesting thoughts, dear Yogesh. I greatly value your opinion. How true, wars are fought for supremacy or survival, depending on the situation. Sometimes they are fought for liberation from colonial oppression. When I think of your country India, I greatly admire Mahatma Gandhi, who said that it is necessary to achieve one’s aims in pacifistic ways. This is not always possible, however. 🌻

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  6. Yogesh D dijo:

    Absolutely right ma’am! It is not possible, sometimes wars are not even avoided. The consequences are bad for all wars, either for themselves or for the enemy.🙏🙏🌻

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  7. When I think of Russia, it has always been a waring country, defending its borders or even acquiring new territories, during its more than 1000 year old history. Such is life: Eat or be eaten.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  8. Yogesh D dijo:

    How true! 👌

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  9. Dear Yogesh, thank you. Let me add a quote: President Putin once said that he had nobody to talk to any more, since Mahatma Gandhi died. I suppose he meant that there are not many intelligent politicians left now.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  10. I did not know all this information. To tell the truth I don’t know Russian history, so THANK YOU and congratulations – all very detailed and accurate!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  11. A lot of Russian and Soviet history is unknown in the west, unfortunately. Thank you for your valuable comment, Claudia.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  12. Оркестр СССР: Праздник Октября – USSR Orchestra: October Holiday

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  13. Уникальные кадры ИСТОРИИ. – Unique historical photos.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  14. We go Lenin’s way – Идём дорогой Ленина:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  15. Soviet song by the Bolshoi Children’s Choir about following in the footsteps of Lenin and following the ideals set by the October Revolution.

    Советская песня в исполнении Большого детского хора о следовании по стопам Ленина и следовании идеалам, заданным Октябрьской революцией.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  16. Текст:

    Рассветное солнце встречаем мы песней,
    Ему отдаём мы салют.
    Дорогою славы, дорогою чести,
    Дорогой отцов пионеры идут.

    Припев:
    Идём дорогой Ленина,
    Дорогой Октября.
    И пламенно горит на наших галстуках
    Весенняя лучистая заря.
    Мы все, как сердцем велено,
    Идём дорогой Ленина,
    /Идём дорогой Ленина,
    Дорогой Октября,-2р./

    Нам Родина крылья могучие дарит,
    И мы отдаём ей салют.
    В таёжные дебри и звёздные дали
    Нас буйные, звонкие ветры зовут.

    Припев.

    Нас партия учит бороться за счастье,
    И мы отдаем ей салют.
    И в завтрашней жизни, распахнутой настежь,
    Победные мирные битвы нас ждут.

    Припев.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  17. Text:

    We meet the dawn sun with a song,
    We give him a salute.
    Road of glory, road of honour,
    Dear fathers’ pioneers go.

    Chorus:
    We walk the path of Lenin
    Dear October.
    And it’s burning on our ties
    Spring radiant dawn.
    We are all, as ordered by the heart,
    We walk the path of Lenin
    / We go along the path of Lenin,
    Dear October

    The Motherland gives us mighty wings,
    And we salute her.
    Into the taiga jungle and starry distances
    The violent, sonorous winds are calling us.

    Chorus.

    The party teaches us to fight for happiness,
    And we salute her.
    And in tomorrow’s life, wide open,
    Victorious peaceful battles are waiting for us.

    Chorus.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  18. The Internationale – Instrumental version:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  19. Текст:
    Вставай, проклятьем заклеймённый,
    Весь мир голодных и рабов!
    Кипит наш разум возмущённый
    И в смертный бой вести готов.
    Весь мир насилья мы разрушим
    До основанья, а затем
    Мы наш, мы новый мир построим, –
    Кто был ничем, тот станет всем.

    Припев:
    Это есть наш последний
    И решительный бой;
    С Интернационалом
    Воспрянет род людской!

    Никто не даст нам избавленья:
    Ни бог, ни царь и не герой!
    Добьёмся мы освобожденья
    Своею собственной рукой.
    Чтоб свергнуть гнёт рукой умелой,
    Отвоевать своё добро, –
    Вздувайте горн и куйте смело,
    Пока железо горячо!

    Припев

    Довольно кровь сосать, вампиры,
    Тюрьмой, налогом, нищетой!
    У вас – вся власть, все блага мира,
    А наше право – звук пустой !
    Мы жизнь построим по-иному –
    И вот наш лозунг боевой:
    Вся власть народу трудовому!
    А дармоедов всех долой!

    Припев

    Презренны вы в своём богатстве,
    Угля и стали короли!
    Вы ваши троны, тунеядцы,
    На наших спинах возвели.
    Заводы, фабрики, палаты –
    Всё нашим создано трудом.
    Пора! Мы требуем возврата
    Того, что взято грабежом.

    Припев

    Довольно королям в угоду
    Дурманить нас в чаду войны!
    Война тиранам! Мир Народу!
    Бастуйте, армии сыны!
    Когда ж тираны нас заставят
    В бою геройски пасть за них –
    Убийцы, в вас тогда направим
    Мы жерла пушек боевых!

    Припев

    Лишь мы, работники всемирной
    Великой армии труда,
    Владеть землёй имеем право,
    Но паразиты – никогда!
    И если гром великий грянет
    Над сворой псов и палачей, –
    Для нас всё так же солнце станет
    Сиять огнём своих лучей.

    Припев

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  20. Text:
    Get up, you damned people,
    The whole world of the hungry and the slaves!
    Our mind is indignant
    And ready to fight until death.
    We will destroy the whole world of violence
    To the bottom and then
    It will be ours, we will build a new world, –
    Who was nothing will become everything.

    Chorus:
    This is our last
    And decisive battle;
    With the International
    The human race will rise!

    No one will give us deliverance:
    Not a god, not a king, not a hero!
    We will achieve liberation
    With our own hands.
    To overthrow oppression with a skillful hand,
    Reclaim our rights
    Blow the horn and forge boldly,
    While the iron is hot!

    Chorus

    Blood sucking, vampires,
    Prison, tax, poverty!
    You have all the power, all the blessings of the world,
    And our right is an empty sound!
    We will build life in a different way –
    And here is our battle slogan:
    All the power to the working people!
    And down with the parasites everywhere!

    Chorus

    You are contemptible in your wealth,
    Coal and steel kings!
    You and your thrones, parasites,
    They were erected on our backs.
    Plants, factories, chambers –
    Everything was created by our labour.
    It’s time! We require a refund
    For what was taken by robbery.

    Chorus

    Enough to please kings
    To stupefy us in the daze of war!
    War on tyrants! Peace to the People!
    Strike, army sons!
    When tyrants will force us,
    Killers, then we will send you
    The muzzles of battle cannons!

    Chorus

    Only we, the workers of the world
    Great Army of Labour
    We have the right to own land
    But parasites – never!
    And if the great thunder strikes
    Over a pack of dogs and executioners, –
    For us, the sun will still
    Shine with the fire of its rays.

    Chorus

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  21. Lenin’s speech on anti-Semitism:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  22. Many thanks to you for this important chance to learn!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  23. We never stop learning, I believe that learning is a lifetime process.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  24. Yogesh D dijo:

    Well said! The intellectual leader is not known but the spirit of the leaders’ public service has definitely decreased, all the leaders are engaged in their own progress. 🙏

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  25. This is true, dear Yogesh. Regarding the intellect of some leaders, I dare say that maybe a sort of dementia has set in? Not everybody ages well. Some do not acquire wisdom with age but rather seem to lose their minds.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  26. There is a working class – Идёт рабочий класс:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  27. The working class is the base of modern society.
    Рабочий класс является основой современного общества.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  28. The battle is going again – И вновь продолжается бой:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  29. Прекрасная композиция!
    Magnifique composition!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  30. Red Army Choir: We are the Red Cavalry – Мы красные кавалеристы

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  31. A Soviet song dedicated to the Cavalrymen who fought for the side of the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War against the White counterrevolutionaries.

    Советская песня, посвященная кавалеристам, сражавшимся на стороне большевиков в годы Гражданской войны в России против белых контрреволюционеров.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  32. Yekaterinburg in the Urals, where the last Tsar’s family was shot:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  33. Старый Екатеринбург:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  34. Yekaterinburg was called Sverdlovsk in Soviet times.
    Свердловск:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  35. Если Вы не бывали в Свердловске…

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  36. The great synagogue of Tomsk, Siberia, where Yankel Khaimovich / Yakov Yurovsky was born and grew up.
    Большая синагога Томска, Сибирь, где родился и вырос Янкель Хаймович/Яков Юровский.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  37. Restoration of the great synagogue in Tomsk – История восстановления Томской Хоральной синагоги:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  38. Церемония открытия Хоральной синагоги – Opening ceremony of the Tomsk great synagogue after its restoration, in 2010, which happened on the holiday of Chanukka:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  39. Церемония открытия Хоральной синагоги (2)
    Opening ceremony of the Tomsk great synagogue, part 2:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  40. Interessante articolo di storia, correlato da magnifiche foto. Buon pomeriggio Olivia, Grazia!

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  41. Спасибо за визит и комментарий, Грация. Всего хорошево.
    Grazie per la visita e il commento, Grazia. Buona giornata!

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  42. And I agree with you.
    But sometimes there are more chances to learn, like it happens thanks to you.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  43. Thank you, Claudia, you are flattering me. I personally think that we can learn from everybody. Smart, clever, wise people should be emulated, if possible. On the other hand, we can learn from dumb, foolish, unintelligent, unwise people what we should not do, what needs to be avoided. Learning is multi-faceted, in my eyes.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  44. Yektaterinodar – Krasnodar, where Yakov Yurovsky had a watch repair shop. The city was called Yekaterinodar until 1920:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  45. Chekists’ song – Песня чекистов:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  46. 20th of December is Chekists’ Day – 20 декабря – День Чекиста:

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  47. giomag59 dijo:

    Very interesting and suggestive article; I have always thought the bolsheviks killed the tsar’s family for political reasons, pogroms and Jews were far from my imagination … Really I knew nothing about the Jews’ condition under tsars; strange, two weeks ago I went to an exhibition of Marc Chagall, in Milan (Mudec Museum), that shows his life in the village where h was born (now in Belarus): it was really a hard life, and Jews had few rights … recently, some years ago, I watched the beautiful movie «The concert», it remembers the persecution of Russian Jews under Breznev (the 70′ years …). But I haven’t joined it with the tsars’ killing.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  48. Transit dijo:

    Olivia, buonasera, ti ringrazia per i tuoi passaggi da me. In questo momento mentre scrivo sto ascoltando L’internazionale strumentale, presente nel tuo blog. Armando. Ciao!

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  49. Thank you for your comment, Giorgio.
    The Jews had a very bad life in tsarist Russia. Many of them emigrated. Unfortunately, in the Soviet Union it was not much better for them, they were forbidden to practice their faith.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  50. Благодарю Вас от всего сердца, Армандо. Всего хорошего.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  51. giomag59 dijo:

    When there was the «iron border», we believed that in USSR all the churches were demolished … 😁 So, when I was there as a tourist I was very surprised to see all these churches! (Now I think it is the opposite: too much power for the church). So, when I watched that movie, I was equally surprised: I did not know about the existance of Jews in USSR, nor that religions were permitted… About the tsar, it’s dramatic but I think it was an obligation for that time, in order to secure the Revolution.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  52. I agree with you, Giorgio. I also think that the Revolution was necessary and helpful for Russia. Otherwise we would still be slaves, working for zero salaries. I am glad the Tsar’s family got killed and the aristocrats driven out of Russia. Furthermore I agree, that the Orthodox church is gaining too much power nowadays again, they always were and still are backwards in their ideology, and also very greedy for money. I do not like them at all. They have a bad influence on Russia.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  53. giomag59 dijo:

    Naturally, I live in Italy, and the influence of the church is again strong, but not like in 1950 … A great part of society is now devoted to God Market and consumerism. Papa Francesco is more open-minded than a lot of priests and citizens … Power does not like him very much. He continues to invite them: no more weapons! Dialogue! But nobody hears him.

    Me gusta

  54. Thank you for this information, Giorgio. I am not familiar at all with what is going on in the Catholic church of Italy or of other countries. I do not follow the news there.
    And I do not even follow the doings of the Russian Orthodox church closely, because I totally despise them. But one cannot but notice their intrusion in politics, unfortunately. I hope the next Russian President will cut back their power and put them in their place, to be quiet. I truly hope so, dear Giorgio.
    Have a nice evening and good night.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  55. You are absolutely right, Olivia!
    And I also learn from mistakes.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  56. Your style is captivating. It is another great piece. An interesting article, Olivia. I believe, it merits a»thank you».

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  57. I am glad you find this article interesting and my style of writing captivating, Elinor. All the best to you, have a good day.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  58. In the beginning I wasn’t sure whether I would be able to read such a long post. Your style of writing is fascinating, Olivia. You deliver excellent content. Thank you.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  59. You are most welcome, Cordell. I am glad you liked this article and my style of writing. All the best to you.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

Los comentarios están cerrados.