Русские дома с резьбой по дереву – Russian houses with wood carving

Русские дома с резьбой по дереву – Russian houses with wood carving

Русское деревянное зодчество — одно из наиболее самобытных явлений в русской культуре.Корни русского деревянного зодчества уходят к древнеславянскому строительству.

Russian wooden architecture is one of the most distinctive phenomena in Russian culture. Its roots go back to ancient Slavic construction.

Этнограф К. Мошинский писал о «деревянном веке» славян, поскольку в их культуре лес занимал особое место и использовался почти в любом ремесле или занятии, в том числе в строительстве. Причина этого не только в распространённости дерева и его доступности самым широким слоям населения, но и в том, что оно легко в обработке, позволяет быстро строить, обладает низкой теплопроводностью.

The ethnographer K. Moshinsky wrote about the «wooden age» of the Slavs, since in their culture the forest occupied a special place and was used in almost any craft or occupation, including construction. The reason for this was not only the prevalence of wood and its accessibility to the widest segments of the population, but also the fact that it is a material easy to process. Wood allows you to build quickly and has low thermal conductivity.

В российском искусствоведении принято считать, что деревянное зодчество значительно более самобытно и национально, чем каменная архитектура и отразило воззрения широких слоёв русского народа, в первую очередь крестьянства. Российский искусствовед Е. В. Ходаковский считает, что оно — «самое русское из всего русского искусства».

In Russian history of art, it is generally accepted that wooden architecture is much more original and national than stone architecture. It reflects the views of broad sections of the Russian people, primarily the peasantry. The Russian art historian E. V. Khodakovsky believes that it is “the most Russian of all Russian art”.

Уже в период формирования единого Древнерусского государства плотничество выделялось в самостоятельную отрасль производства. Плотники объединялись в артели. Имена руководивших ими мастеров иногда вырезались на постройках.

Already in the period of forming the ancient Russian state, carpentry stood out as an independent branch of production. Carpenters united in artels. The masters’ names were carved on the buildings.

Деревянное зодчество было связано с языческими пережитками. Свои сакральные ценности крестьяне оберегали с помощью строительной обрядности. Специальные обряды сопровождали закладку стен, строительство печи, устройство проёмов, заселение в новый дом. Плотникам приписывались контакты с потусторонней силой.

Wooden architecture was associated with pagan rituals. The peasants protected their sacred values ​​in buildings. Special rituals accompanied the laying of walls, the construction of a furnace, the arrangement of openings and the process of settling into the new house. Carpenters were credited to have contact with otherworldly powers.

Есть много талантливых мастеров, которые соблюдают традиции русских художественных промыслов. Домовая резьба здесь была известна издревле. Домовая резьба характеризуется выразительностью и символизмом.

There are many talented craftsmen today, who follow the old traditions of Russian arts and crafts. Wood carving for houses has been known here since ancient times. It is characterized by expressiveness and symbolism.

Орнаменты связаны с символикой цветущей природы: животные, птицы, цветы, сказочные чудища. Каждый образ или узор обладал мощным магическим характером.

В старину люди верили в силу деревянных элементов, которые служили оберегами. Резные украшения защищали от зла своих владельцев.

Ornaments were associated with the symbolism of flowering nature: animals, birds, plants, fabulous monsters. Each image or pattern had a powerful magical character.

In the old days, people believed in the power of wooden elements that served as amulets. Carved decorations protected their owners from evil.

Особенно важным и интересным был образный мир наличников окон. Сами окна в представлении о доме — являются пограничной зоной между миром внутри жилища и иным, природным, зачастую неизвестным, окружающим дом со всех сторон.

Particularly important and interesting was the figurative world of window frames. The windows of ​​a house are the boundary zone between the world inside and the world outside, an often unknown surrounding.

Верхняя часть наличника обозначала — небесный мир, на ней изображались символы Солнца. На сводчатых очельях присутствовали змеи, птицы, цветы.

The upper part of the window symbolized the heavenly world, so symbols of the sun were depicted on it. On the vaulted chapels there were snakes, birds, flowers.

Солнце – древнее славянское божество. Жизнь подчинялась солнечному круговороту — все праздники и важные события были связаны с солнцем. Считалось, что именно солнце играет самую важную роль в мироздании, оно — средоточие силы, жизни, энергии и плодородия.

The sun was an ancient Slavic deity. Life was directed by the solar cycle, all the holidays and important events were associated with the sun. It was believed that it was the sun that plays the most important role in the universe as а focus of energy, fertility, life and strength.

Резные фасады делали дома жителей праздничными. Поэтому такие украшения быстро вошли в моду.

Carved facades made the houses look festive for its inhabitants. Therefore, such decorations quickly became fashionable.

В конце восемнадцатого — начале двадцатого веков каждый населенный пункт обладал своим почерком оконной резьбы по дереву. Чем больше было расстояние между городами и селами, тем больше появлялось несоответствий в оформлении. Но с развитием транспорта и коммуникационных средств все переменилось – границы открылись, запустив процесс смешивания стилей.

From the late 18th to the early 20th century, each settlement had its own style of window carving. The greater the distance between cities and villages, the more discrepancies appeared in the design. With the development of transport and means of communication, everything changed and the styles were mixed.

Крупный орнамент нужно рассматривать издалека. Элементы соединяются в единую композицию, что хорошо видно на большом расстоянии.

A large ornament must be viewed from afar. The elements are combined into a single composition, which is clearly visible at a distance.

Работы народных умельцев, которые творили свои шедевры более 100 лет назад, дошли до наших дней. Местные жители знают расшифровку резных инициалов на своих домах.

The works of Russian craftsmen who created their masterpieces more than 100 years ago have survived to this day. The locals know how to decode the carved initials on their houses.

Когда будете в Москве, не упустите возможность посетить Коломенское. Там вы увидите красивую резьбу по дереву. Коломенское — дворцовое село, бывшая царская резиденция. С 1923 года на территории усадьбы был создан музей-заповедник русского деревянного зодчества. В настоящее время Коломенское входит в состав Московского государственного объединённого художественного историко-архитектурного и природно-ландшафтного музея-заповедника.

When you are in Moscow, do not miss the opportunity to visit Kolomenskoye. There you will see beautiful wood carvings. Kolomenskoye is a palace village, a former tsarist residence. Since 1923, a museum-reserve of Russian wooden architecture has been created on the estate. Currently, Kolomenskoye is part of the Moscow State United Art Historical, Architectural and Natural Landscape Museum-Reserve.

Одним из самых ярких образцов рельефной резьбы – деревянный дворец царя Алексея Михайловича в Коломенском, построенный в 1667—1672 гг. Тончайшей резьбой украшено буквально все — фризы, подзоры, крыльца, галереи.

One of the most striking examples of relief carving is the wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in Kolomenskoye, built in 1667-1672. Literally everything is decorated with the finest carvings – friezes, valances, porches, galleries.

Дворец строился по проекту архитекторов Семёна Петрова и Ивана Михайлова. Это было сооружение, объединённое переходом с церковью Казанской иконы Божией Матери, состоявшее из 26 соединённых друг с другом теремов. Высота некоторых построек достигала 30 метров.

The palace was built according to the project of architects Semyon Petrov and Ivan Mikhailov. The building, united by a passage with the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, consisted of 26 terems (towers) connected to each other. The height of some terems reached 30 metres.

Нижний этаж («нижнее житье») дворца был отведен под хозяйственные нужды, в то время как царская семья занимала второй этаж («верхнее житье»). Весь дворец делился на две половины — мужскую и женскую.

The lower floor («lower dwelling») of the palace was reserved for household needs, while the royal family occupied the second floor («upper dwelling»). The whole palace was divided into two halves – male and female.

Деревянный дворец простоял на своем месте около века, а затем по указу Екатерины II был разобран «из-за ветхости». Но благодаря сохранившимся чертежам и обмерам, подтвержденным в ходе археологических исследований, дворец удалось восстановить.

The wooden palace stood in its place for about a century, and then, by decree of Catherine II, it was dismantled «because of dilapidation.» But thanks to the surviving drawings and measurements, confirmed during archaeological research, the palace was restored, in the 20th century.

Идея воссоздания дворца в музее-заповеднике возникла в 1990-е годы и была поддержана правительством Москвы. Общая площадь застройки составляет более 7 000 м². Исторические интерьеры воссозданы на общей площади 1,775 тыс. м² в 23-х помещениях. Хоромы располагаются на пяти уровнях и объединяют пять строений.

The idea of recreating the palace as a museum-reserve arose in the 1990s and was supported by the Moscow government. The total building area is 7.000 m². Historical interiors were recreated on an area of 1.775 m² in 23 rooms. The mansions are located on five levels and unite five buildings.

Website of the museum-reserve Kolomenskoye:

https://www.mgomz.ru/ru

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Writer, journalist: The Duran https://olivia2010kroth.wordpress.com
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33 respuestas a Русские дома с резьбой по дереву – Russian houses with wood carving

  1. Ils sont merveilleux, avec tant de détails admirables et élaborés. Savez-vous où j’ai aussi vu des constructions similaires, toutes en bois et joliment décorées ? En Roumanie.

    Bonne semaine.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  2. Merci pour cette information, mirada. Je ne connais pas du tout la Roumanie.
    Une bonne semaine à vous aussi.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  3. Indira dijo:

    Awesome series of vintage architectural elements, Olivia!

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  4. They are truly awesome, Indira. Thank you.

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  5. Giannis Pit dijo:

    Wow, Olivia, what a beautiful art! I am really enthusiastic about this beauty, my dear. All these houses, the doors, the windows. I can’t believe my eyes what I’m seeing.
    Thank you. Have a nice week.

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  6. If you travel across Russia, you will see plenty of these beautiful old wooden houses, Giannis. Have a very good week too, my friend.

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  7. Incantevole post che mette in luce le splendide facciate intagliate di queste case di legno. Ornate magnificamente. Il tuo è stato un reportage favoloso. E’ bello conoscere i tesori della Russia sia nel disegno, che nell’intarsio: lavoro certosino affidato a mani abili e preziose. Bellissima la musica e il canto, eseguita splendidamente dai Vostri artisti. Complimenti Olivia, propri un bell’articolo che ho molto apprezzato. Ti auguro una serena serata con un affettuoso saluto. Grazia!

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  8. La Russie est vraiment riche en trésors d’art et d’artisanat. Il y a beaucoup de gens talentueux en Russie.
    Bonne soirée, Grazia.

    Le gusta a 2 personas

  9. giomag59 dijo:

    Very interesting, these traditional and characteristic buildings. I did not see Kolomenskoye, there was not enough time. Great artisans. Buildings delicate and subject to fire … P.s. what a voice the singer has in Ah, Anastasia!

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  10. Maybe you can visit Kolomenskoye the next time you come to Moscow, dear Giorgio. It is really worth seeing.
    The singer of «Anastasia» is Boris Shtokolov, he was the best and most famous bass in Soviet times.

    WIKIPEDIA/ITALIANO:
    Борис Тимофеевич Штоколов
    (Kuzneck, 19 marzo 1930 – San Pietroburgo, 6 gennaio 2005) è stato un famoso basso russo e sovietico, uno dei più grandi bassi del XX secolo.

    Boris Shtokolov è stato anche un importante teorico del canto lirico e delle tecniche di respirazione. Nel 1995 ha pubblicato il libro «Brucia, brucia, mia stella: come cantare».

    Onorificenze:
    Artista del popolo dell’Unione Sovietica (1966)
    Premio di Stato dell’Unione Sovietica (1981)
    Ordine di Lenin (1980)
    Ordine della Rivoluzione d’ottobre (1983)
    Ordine della Bandiera rossa del lavoro
    Ordine della Guerra patriottica
    Membro Onorario dell’Accademia Slava
    Cittadino onorario dell’Oblast’ di Kemerovo (2002)

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  11. giomag59 dijo:

    Really a great voice. And about Kolomenskoye: I hope it will be possible …
    A little question: It was rebuilt recently, then it does not appear «false»? Or it reminds well the spirit of the ancient palace?

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  12. Kolomenskoye Palace was rebuilt according to the original architectural plans, which thankfully were preserved. It is a new building but very close to the original.

    Regarding Boris Shtokolov:
    You can hear him also in the first video, ПРЯХА, «the Spinner» (1981), with pictures of the Russian painter Konstantin Vasiliev.
    Boris Shtokolov sings here with the Andreyev Russian Folk Orchestra of the Leningrad TV & Radio.

    ПРЯХА (SPINNER)
    In a low light
    The flame is burning.
    The young spinner is
    Sitting by the window.

    Young, beautiful,
    Brown eyes,
    Over the shoulders
    A blond braid.

    Вlond head,
    Thoughts without end.
    What are you dreaming about,
    Beautiful girl?

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  13. fulvialuna1 dijo:

    Ma che lavori meravigliosi! Alcuni sembrano dei merletti.
    I serramenti abbelliscono la casa. E grazie per le informazioni sul significato di alcune figure.
    Dipinti sempre bellissimi.

    Le gusta a 1 persona

  14. Ces maisons sont de véritables trésors de l’artisanat russe. Il doit être très agréable d’y vivre.

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  15. thelongview dijo:

    Stunning pics, Olivia! I’ve always admired the onion domes of Russian architecture as something unique and exotic. On the other hand, some of the Slavic works of art that you have shared look familiar. The pagan deities seem to have much in common with our Hindu gods, and the houses with carved doors and windows are of a type I’ve seen in the mountain states of Himachal and Uttarakhand. Yes, there’s a warmth and beauty to wood very different from other materials. Thank you for putting together such an informative and beautiful post – a feast for the eyes and mind!

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  16. Giannis Pit dijo:

    Wonderful sight my friend! Good morning.

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  17. Thank you, Harini. I have never been to your mountain states Himachal and Uttarkhand. Do you have some photos you could share on your blog? I am curious to see what the houses look like there. I like wooden houses. They have a charm of their own.

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  18. Bonjour, worldphoto.

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  19. thelongview dijo:

    Sadly, I have no photos of those houses, Olivia. On our annual holidays in the Himalayas, we used to be so in love with the natural wonders that we had no time for man-made beauty. I regret it now!

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  20. Do you not travel to the Himalayas any longer?

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  21. Thank you for the links, Harini.
    I see similarities of the Bhimakali Temple and the Hadimba Devi Temple (Manali) with the Mikhailovsky Palace in Kolomenskoye. The woodwork, the forms of towers (terems) are similar, especially at the top. On the wooden houses of this state the round carved solar symbols above windows are almost the same as in Slav wooden architecture.
    I find these similarities astounding and wonder whether the Kinnaur people of Himachal Pradesh had any contact with Slavic tribes because their wooden architecture seems to point in this direction. The Himalayas are not so far away from Russia, although I do not now whether Slavic tribes traveled so far east. They settled in the west and in central Russia, as far as I know.

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  22. thelongview dijo:

    Yes, it’s very exciting to see the similarities! The people of Kinnaur say they are descended from kinnaras, a kind of celestial musician, half human, half bird.

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  23. Yaksh singh dijo:

    Really you described the culture of Russian architectural elements so purely and nicely, Olivia.
    You are a very knowledgeable person.

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  24. Querida Olivia: como siempre, tus publicaciones son bellas y enseñan mucho. Me gustó mucho saber más sobre la arquitectura rusa en madera, estilo que sin duda se presentó más en las zonas rurales de Rusia. Tienen bastante arte y significan mucho trabajo; además, los cuidados de la madera deben ser constantes para evitar daños. Me gustó mucho. Un día he de conocer esos lugares. Te saludo con la amistad de siempre.

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  25. thelongview dijo:

    It’s been several years … My mother is 93 and our dog is 13. It’s hard to get away so we only go on short trips these days.

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  26. Olivia, I am enchanted!
    I had never seen woodcarving artwork so great!
    Marvelous!
    I am literally in love with those windows! In both versions: both with colour and with regard to pure wood.
    In fact, wood is an element that brings us back to nature, to the roots, to the earth, a bit as if it could be more truthful.
    I had never heard the saying that wood chases away evil, but I certainly like it and I also like to feel the contact.
    THANKS, Olivia!

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  27. I like the idea of the celestial musicians, Harini. It is a very spiritual descendance.

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  28. Thank you for the compliments, Yaksh singh.
    I am glad you enjoyed reading this article.

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  29. Thank you, Santiago.
    These wooden houses can be found mostly in rural areas, as you write – but also in towns like Nizhny Novgorod, Irkutsk and others.
    In Moscow, there are almost none left.
    With kind greetings from Russia.

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  30. 93 – that is a nice age, Harini. I hope I will reach that, too.

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  31. I think that wood is very protective for human beings, in the physical and also the spiritual sense, Claudia.
    There is a saying, «knock on wood», which means «I hope it will bring good luck and protection from evil».
    Not «knock on stone» or «knock on asphalt» or «knock on cement», no! KNOCK ON WOOD!

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